7. Ĉiam malfrue


The rules for negation are much as in English.

  • Nek li nek ŝi respondis. – Neither he or she answered.
  • Vi nek sidas nek rigardas. – You are neither sitting nor looking.

  • Mi neniam diros al iu. – I shall never tell anyone. (Mi neniam diros al neniu is wrong in Esperanto just as "I shan't never tell no-one" is in English.)


Mem means "self" (myself, yourself, himself etc.) and is used to emphasize the noun or pronoun it follows. (Compare si, reflexive, lesson 4.)

  • Mi mem faris tion. – I myself did that, I did that myself.


There are various ways of saying "goodbye" in Esperanto, but the most usual is

  • ĝis la revido – literally "until the re-seeing" (Compare English "see you", French "au revoir".)

Alternatively it may be said without the article:

  • ĝis revido.

The Prefix ek-


  1. the beginning of an action, or
  2. a sudden momentary action.


  • ekparoli – to start speaking
  • eksilenti – to fall silent
  • eksidi – to sit down, to take a seat
  • ekridi – to burst out laughing

The Suffix -aĵ

means "thing", a concrete object:

  • manĝo – food
  • trinko – drink, beverage
  • belo – something beautiful
  • sendo – something sent, a missive