6. Maja

-u in Noun Clauses

The imperative ending -u is used not only (as we have already seen) in direct commands and so on, but also in indirect speech in clauses introduced by ke after verbs of commanding, requesting, advising, whishing. (These often correspond to English clauses with "to".)

  • Mi deziras, ke vi lernu. – I want you to learn (lit.: I want that you learn.)
  • La patro insistas, ke mi iru. – Father insists that I go.

The Preposition je

The preposition je is kind of a joker. It has no precise meaning, but is used where no other preposition covers the exact meaning one wishes to express. Amongst other things, it is the usual word for translating "at" when telling the time.

  • Je kioma horo vi venos? – What time will you come? (lit.: At the how-manyeth hour?)
  • Je la kvina horo. – At five o'clock.

The Verb Farti

This verb is mainly used in the expression:

  • Kiel vi fartas? – How are you?

The Suffix -et

is used to make diminutives:

  • libreto – booklet
  • beleta – pretty
  • varmeta – tepid

The Suffix -eg

is used to make augmentatives

  • librego – tome
  • varmega – blazing hot
  • belega – superb
  • bonega – excellent

The Suffix -iĝ

means "to become", "to get":

  • riĉiĝi – to grow rich
  • trankvili – to calm down, to become calm
  • resani – to get well again, to recover
  • geedzi – to get married, to wed